Literature

 

Welcome to the literature area of the FIC Web site. Here you will find a collection of articles, books, fact sheets and technical memos, reports and studies related to saving farm and ranch land and supporting agriculture. You can filter by state, topic and/or type of document ("category"). Use the Search feature to conduct a more refined search.

Title: An Unlevel Playing Field: How Public Policies Favor Suburban Sprawl Over Downtown Development in Metropolitan Atlanta
Publisher: Washington, DC: American Farmland Trust , Publication Name: AFT Publication
Body:

In metropolitan Atlanta, the city and suburbs are competing for new development and the economic opportunity that accompanies it. The suburbs are winning this competition and the result is sprawl and urban decay. This outcome is not simply a function of the free market. Government policy decisions have a pervasive influence on the market for land and its use. If we want to change land use patterns, we must change public policy.

Three economists from Georgia universities studied taxes and fees development regulations and procedures, redevelopment incentives and transportation policies, all of which have a strong influence on land use in Metro Atlanta. Based on an analysis of the internal rate of return of four hypothetical development projects at five urban and suburban locations, they concluded that public policies contribute to the greater profitability of all types of development at three suburban locations than at two locations within the City of Atlanta. The accuracy of these results is confirmed by how closely they mirror the kinds of development that are actually occurring in the region.

The cost of land, averaging 8 times higher in the city than in the suburbs, is the single most important factor favoring suburban development. Though its price is a function of market supply and demand, the demand for land for development on the suburban edge of the metro region has been greatly increased by the construction of highways. This policy decision has brought thousands of acres of remote rural land into competition with the city, while creating enormous wealth in the outskirts by increasing private land values by $10,000 per acre.

Higher city rental rates offset the land cost advantage of the suburbs to some extent, particularly for apartments. Development requirements like parking spaces, as well as the longer period it takes to receive permission to build in the city, also play major roles in giving the suburbs a competitive advantage. Taxes and impact fees give a smaller but still significant advantage to the suburbs. On the other hand, the abatement of taxes in urban enterprise and empowerment zones in the city is an important counterweight to the advantage conferred on the suburbs by other policies. These trends were corroborated by a survey of local developers.

The researchers' analysis was reviewed by academic peers and discussed at a roundtable meeting of local private and public leaders. This report also contains a summary of their views. Based on the research and views of local leaders, this report recommends that consideration be given to a number of policy changes to level the playing field between the City of Atlanta and its suburbs and, thus, to curb sprawl and improve the quality of life in the entire metro Atlanta region:

- Augment tax incentives for enterprise zone development in the City of Atlanta, paying particular attention to attracting middle class housing to the downtown area. Accompany this with stronger "brownfield" development incentives and indemnities.
-Streamline the zoning and development approval processes in the city of Atlanta to reduce delays that add to developers' costs, while maintaining adequate public input.
-Examine current city specifications for developer-provided infrastructure and make changes to lower developers' costs while still meeting public needs. Pay particular attention to requirements for parking spaces, which are much more costly to provide downtown than in the suburbs.
-Consider a tax surcharge on downtown parking lots to encourage their development and lower overall city land costs. Study a two-tier property tax system like the one that has contributed to the revitalization of downtown Pittsburgh by encouraging development of vacant land.
-Recapture a portion of the windfall increase in suburban land values that has resulted from construction of highways and other infrastructure. Without this, the chances of revitalizing downtown and curbing the effects of sprawl on everyone in the region may be futile. Possibilities for windfall recapture include regional revenue-sharing like that adopted by Minneapolis-St. Paul, and a regional impact fee on new development that reflects the impact that sprawl has on the core of Adanta and, hence, the entire metro region. Reinvest the proceeds in downtown Atlanta and perhaps older suburbs that may suffer the same competitive disadvantage because of public policy decisions.
-Ask suburban development to pay more of its full marginal cost for public services. Begin by changing the rules on impact fees to allow one jurisdiction to recover costs caused by development in another.
-Adopt a more regional approach to land use planning and decisionmaking. A promising opportunity for starting this may be the pending proposal to harness state transportation funding as an incentive. All of these proposals are offered, not as a definitive policy agenda, but as a contribution to a more urgent and focused discussion on the future of land use trends and the quality of life in metropolitan Atlanta.Nike

Date: Friday, January 1, 1999 , Author: Edward Thompson, Jr. , Page Numbers: 17
Nid: 30363
Title: Analysis and Cost Projections of the Integrated Farm Revenue Program
Publisher: Washington, DC: American Farmland Trust , Date: Friday, February 23, 2007 , Author: Bruce Babcock , Page Numbers: 27
Nid: 34566
Title: Analysis of Existing Town of Lima Zoning Regulations
Publisher: Lima, NY: Town of Lima
Body:

An excerpt on zoning regulations from the Town of Lima Agricultural and Farmland Protection Plan.  The Town of Lima Agricultural and Farmland Protection Plan was funded by a Municipal Planning Grant through the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets. The plan was approved by the Commissioner of Agriculture on May 27, 2010.  Agriculture Committee members in Lima chose to complete an in-depth analysis of zoning regulations as a component of the planning for agriculture process and to develop recommendations for more agriculture-friendly zoning laws.  Lebron XIV 14 Low

Date: Thursday, January 21, 2010 , Author: Town of LIma Agricultural Committee , Page Numbers: 34
Nid: 38741
Title: Are Farmland Preservation Program Easement Restrictions Capitalized into Farmland Prices? What Can a Propensity Score Matching Analysis Tell Us?
Publisher: Milwaukee, WI: American Agricultural Economics Association , Publication Name: Review of Agicultural Economics
Body:

State and local farmland preservation programs have existed throughout the United States since the late 1970s to slow the conversion of agricultural lands to other uses. These programs take two basic forms, either purchase of development rights/purchase of agricultural conservation easements (PDR/PACE), or transfer of development rights (TDR). They result in an easement becoming attached to the agricultural land that restricts the right to convert the land to residential, commercial, and industrial uses. The landowner is provided with a cash payment and/or tax benefit for participation.

Preservation programs are motivated by a number of policy objectives, including: local and national food security; viability of the local agricultural economy; efficient development of urban and rural land; and the protection of rural and environmental amenities (Gardner; Hellerstein et al.; Gale). More than 124 governmental entities in the United States have implemented farmland preservation programs and over 1.67 million acres are now in preserved status at a cost of almost $4 billion (American Farmland Trust 2005a, 2005b). Citizens continue to pass ballot initiatives to generate the funds to purchase easements.

While there is some evidence that preservation programs provide net benefits to society (Feather and Barnard; Duke and Ilvento), little evaluation has beenconducted on their impact on farmland prices or farmland retention. Economic theory predicts that an agricultural easement will reduce the sales price of a farm. Therefore, it was surprising when Nickerson and Lynch, using sales data for 223 farms (20 with easements) in Maryland during 1994–1997, found little evidence that easement restrictions affect sales price.

In this paper, we re-examine the impact of agricultural easements on sales prices, using a substantially expanded data set of 3,554 observations in 22 Maryland counties, including 249 preserved properties over 1997–2003. Maryland has had a variety of state and county agricultural land preservation programs since the late 1970s, with almost 250,000 acres preserved by 2004 in the state Maryland Agricultural Land Preservation Foundation (MALPF) program.1 We analyze the impact of agricultural easements on sales prices, using both hedonic regression and propensity score approaches.Air Jordan I Mid

Date: Wednesday, August 1, 2007 , Author: Lori Lynch, Wayne Gray and Jacqueline Geoghegan , Page Numbers: 502-509
Nid: 36926
Title: Are You Thinking About Moving to the Country?
Publisher: Ballston Spa, NY: Saratoga County Agricultural Promotion Committee
Body:

This brochure provides information about the importance of agriculture to Saratoga County.

Date: Monday, January 1, 2001 , Author: Saratoga County Agricultural Promotion Committee
Nid: 30859
Title: ARS Senior Staff Conference
Publisher: Norm Berg
Body:

From a speech given at the USDA ARS Senior Staff Conference in Beltsville, Maryland.

Date: Wednesday, October 23, 1974 , Author: Norman A. Berg , Page Numbers: 12
Nid: 31275
Title: Assessing Fuel Efficiency and CO2 Emissions of Two Local Food Distribution Options in Iowa
Publisher: Ames, IA: Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Iowa State University , Publication Name: Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture
Body:

The purpose of this study was to determine which transportation option consumed less fuel and emitted less CO2: farmer delivery or customer pick up of food products for an Iowa Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) enterprise.

In order to perform this study, the following information was obtained from an Iowa CSA farmer: his exact route(s) of delivery (including customers’ addresses), what type of vehicle he used for deliveries, and what location and time of day he would utilize as a central pick-up point for customers if he chose not to deliver. With this information, the farmer’s route mileage was calculated using Mapquest and data from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency to determine fuel usage and vehicle emissions. The fuel consumption and CO2 emissions were determined for four different vehicle categories: Ford Ranger, Dodge Caravan, Toyota Prius, and U. S. average fuel economy for passenger vehicles. Mileage, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions also were calculated for customer pick-up using the same method, categories, and references as used for the delivery method.

Assumptions were made concerning the pick-up routes of customers depending upon their place of employment and details provided by the CSA farmer. Findings showed that the delivery option using a Toyota Prius resulted in 2.77 times lower fuel usage and CO2 emissions than the consumer pick-up option using U. S. average fuel economy for passenger vehicles. However, if all the CSA customers who used vehicles for pick-up drove a Toyota Prius, farmer distribution would still be more fuel efficient, but only 1.35 times more than that of customer pick-upJade Rasif

Date: Sunday, June 1, 2008 , Author: Rich Pirog and Rebecca Rasmussen , Page Numbers: 11
Nid: 37140
Title: Assessing the San Diego County Food System: Indicators for a More Food Secure Future
Publisher: Davis, CA: University of California
Body:

This assessment is the product of collaboration among a unique coalition of governmental, public health, social service, environmental and agricultural experts from throughout San Diego County and is intended to serve as a catalyst for community based policy change. In particular, the goal of this document is to examine the overall viability of the food system in San Diego County and in so doing, to identify key steps necessary to strengthen the foundation for a thriving local food system.Nike Air Max

Date: Wednesday, December 1, 2010 , Author: Susan Ellsworth and Gail Feenstra , Page Numbers: 114
Nid: 38991
Title: Assessment of Community Food Production Resources
Publisher: Washington, DC: USDA Economic Research Services
Body:

This chapter is part of the Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, a report which provides a toolkit of standardized measurement tools for assessing various aspects of community food security. This chapter discusses the data needed toconduct an assessment of community food production. To view the complete report see the link below.

 Lebron Soldier XII 12

Date: Monday, July 1, 2002 , Author: Barbara Cohen , Page Numbers: 5
Nid: 1983910767
Title: At a Crossroads: Agricultural Economic Development in the Hudson Valley
Publisher: Saratoga Springs, NY: American Farmland Trust , Publication Name: AFT Publication
Body:

The Hudson Valley is home to some of America’s most productive, yet most endangered, farmland. Blessed with good soils and a long growing season, Hudson Valley farms produce a bounty of farm products for urban markets in the Northeast. Yet American Farmland Trust’s 1997 Farming on the Edge study ranked the Hudson Valley the 10th most threatened agricultural region in the country. Many factors have contributed to a steady decline in the region’s agriculture, including relentless development pressure, unpredictable weather and low prices for milk, apples and other farm goods. The challenges to Hudson Valley farmers are great, and some people worry that farming may even disappear from the region during our lifetimes.

However, such dire predictions don’t take into account the great resiliency of many Hudson Valley farmers. Hudson Valley agriculture is seriously threatened, but it is also changing in the face of adversity. Many innovative Hudson Valley producers are taking matters into their own hands by adopting creative farm survival strategies. Some producers utilize farm stands, farmers’ markets, community-supported-agriculture and direct delivery to reach their con-sumers. Other agricultural enterprises have diversified to increase their income. Agriculture must adapt in order to survive, and the good news is that many Hudson Valley farm operators are doing just that.

This study utilized a qualitative methodology, building on existing data to understand key trends in regional agriculture. The study also relied on over 100 individual interviews with farmers, agribusiness owners and others involved in the region’s agricultural industry. Not limited to presenting merely an analysis of data, the study also presents workable recommendations to strengthen Hudson Valley agriculture.adidas

Date: Friday, October 1, 2004 , Author: American Farmland Trust , Page Numbers: 39
Nid: 29996
Title: At the Junction of Transportation and Conservation
Publisher: Northampton, MA: American Farmland Trust , Publication Name: Connection , Date: Tuesday, October 1, 2002 , Author: Beth Holtzman , Page Numbers: 1,8
Nid: 28558
Title: Beginning Farmer Talking Points
Publisher: Northampton, MA: American Farmland Trust
Body:

USDA defines beginning farmers as individuals who have been operating a farm for 10 years or less. The 2012 Census of Agriculture provides information about operators’ experience on their current farm, “years on present farm” and, for the first time, “years operating any farm.” Nationwide, the number of beginning farmers (operators with fewer than 10 years of experience on their present farm) has reached a 30-year low. Just between 2007 and 2012, the number of beginners dropped 20 percent to 469,098.

This handout provides talking points on beginning farmer statistics compiled by the Farmland information Center.Nike Kyrie

Date: Monday, February 2, 2015 , Author: Jennifer Dempsey , Page Numbers: 3
Nid: 1983911390
Title: Beginning Farmers and Farmers at a Glance: 2013 Edition
Publisher: Washington, DC: USDA Economic Research Service
Body:

USDA programs have targeted assistance to beginning farmers and ranchers since the 1992 Agricultural Credit Improvement Act. Farms or ranches are considered “beginning” if the operators have managed them for 10 years or less. The Economic Research Service has looked at the trend in numbers of beginning farmers and ranchers in recent decades and examined some key characteristics that distinguish them from established farms using the Census of Agriculture and the Agricultural Resource Management Survey. Taken every five years, the Census provides the only source of uniform, comprehensive and impartial agricultural data for every county in the nation.Mercurial Superfly High

Date: Tuesday, January 1, 2013 , Author: Mary Ahearn , Page Numbers: 6
Nid: 1983910828
Title: Beginning Farmers and Ranchers
Publisher: Washigton, DC: USDA Economic Research Service , Publication Name: ERS Report
Body:

USDA defines beginning farmers and ranchers as those who have operated a farm or ranch for 10 years or less either as a sole operator or with others who have operated a farm or ranch for 10 years or less. Beginning farmers tend to be younger than established farmers and to operate smaller farms or ranches, some of which may provide no annual production. Beginning farmers often face obstacles getting started, including high startup costs and limited availability of land. USDA—through the Farm Service Agency and the Natural Resources Conservation Service—provides loans and conservation assistance to beginning farmers and ranchers. This report draws on data from annual surveys and the Census of Agriculture to provide policymakers with a better understanding of beginning farmers and ranchers, including how they contribute to U.S. agricultural productionadidas

Date: Friday, May 1, 2009 , Author: Mary Ahearn, Doris Newton , Page Numbers: 32
Nid: 1983911187
Title: Beginning Farmers' Guide to Conservation Easements
Publisher: Northampton, MA: American Farmland Trust
Body:

This fact sheet provides basic information about conservation easements. It is one in a collection of fact sheets produced as part of American Farmland Trust's Farmland Advisors project which created and trained a network of 80 professionals to provide guidance to farmers and farmland owners. Topics include: transitioning land to the next generation, finding a farmer to work the land, and matching farm seekers with farm owners.Nike

Date: Thursday, October 1, 2015 , Author: Farmland Advisors , Page Numbers: 2
Nid: 1983911474
Title: Best Development Practices: A Primer for Smart Growth
Publisher: Washington, DC: Smart Growth Network and International City/County Management Association , Publication Name: Smart Growth Network and International City/County Management Association
Body:

In Best Development Practices: A Primer, good community development, as distinct from sprawl, is defined in operational terms. Public purposes loom large,though not at the expense of market considerations. Recommendations go to the enlightened edge of current development practice, but not so far beyond as to lose our target audience, the development community. The public purposes pursued though these best practices—among them, affordable housing, energy efficiency, preservation of natural areas, and sense of community—make good business sense.Air Jordans

Date: Thursday, January 1, 1998 , Author: Reid Ewing , Page Numbers: 36
Nid: 38206
Title: Better Living and Land Beautification Through Conservation
Publisher: Norm Berg
Body:

From a speech given at the annual conference of the South Dakota Chapter, Soil Conservation Society of America, in Aberdeen, South Dakota.

Date: Thursday, October 27, 1966 , Author: Norman A. Berg , Page Numbers: 11
Nid: 31276
Title: Beyond Easements
Publisher: Northampton, MA: American Farmland Trust , Publication Name: Connection , Date: Thursday, October 1, 1998 , Author: Robin Sherman , Page Numbers: 1
Nid: 29866
Title: Beyond Food: The Environmental Benefits of Agriculture in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Publisher: Tacoma, WA: Earth Economics
Body:

The natural capital in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, provides a robust flow of essential economic goods and services benefits, including food, water, clean air, natural beauty, climatic stability, storm and flood protection, and recreation. Agricultural lands make up over 65% of the ecosystems in Lancaster County, which is the first county in the nation to reach 100,000 acres of preserved farmland. This analysis identified the natural capital from farmland preservation at $676 million in annual economic benefits. If treated like an asset, Lancaster County ecosystems value at $17.5 billion.NEW NIKE SHOES

Date: Tuesday, July 1, 2014 , Author: Aaron Schwartz, Maya Kocian , Page Numbers: 48
Nid: 1983911563
Title: Beyond Takings and Givings
Publisher: Marina Del Rey, CA: Arje Press
Body:

Beyond Takings and Givings updates and expands the 1997 publication Saved By Development. Beyond Takings and Givings offers a progress report on most of the 112 TDR programs profiled in the 1997 book plus case studies of 30 additional programs. Beyond Takings and Givings provides a step-by-step guide to creating a TDR program and addresses the most commonly asked questions on this topic. What is TDR? How did TDR evolve? What can TDR accomplish? Where is TDR used? Where has TDR worked best? What are TDR’s success factors? What are TDRs advantages and disadvantages? How does TDR compare with other implementation tools? Why doesn’t everyone use TDR? And, for communities where adoption of a traditional TDR program seems doubtful, Beyond Takings and Givings explains density transfer charges, a tool that reduces the seemingly complex TDR mechanism to a single requirement. Beyond Takings and Givings places TDR within the context of the ongoing property rights debate. Some property rights advocates believe that governments should compensate for regulations that reduce but do not eliminate property value, or “partial takings”. In contrast, some community rights advocates argue that compensation is inappropriate because value reductions are offset by the value increases created by government actions and regulations, often without reimbursement, or “givings”. TDR offers a practical alternative to this stalemate. It recaptures a portion of the extra value created by additional development at TDR receiving sites and uses it to offset value reductions experienced by the owners of sending area land who voluntarily restrict the development potential of their properties.Nike LunarEpic Low Flyknit

Date: Monday, April 14, 2003 , Author: Rick Pruetz , Page Numbers: 500
Nid: 29805

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